Datapoint Italian / Alignment of Verbal Person Marking

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One Response to “Datapoint Italian / Alignment of Verbal Person Marking”

  1. Delvecchio Simone Says:

    The Italian language have a split alignment.
    The Italian language have an accusative alignment except for the past participle which have an active alignment.

    For example

    1a) {active imperfective transitive clause}
    Carlo mangia [delle fragole].
    A V [ P ]
    Carl-o mangi-a di=l-e fragol-e
    Charles-M.SG eat-3.SG PARTITIVE=DEF.ART-F.PL strawberry-F.PL
    Carlo eats some strawberries.

    1b) {active perfective transitive clause}
    Carlo [ho mangiata] [delle fragole].
    A [ V ] [ P ]
    Carl-o h-a mangi-a-t-e di=l-e fragol-e
    Charles-M.SG have.PRES.IND-3.SG eat-1st=conjugation-PAST.PART-F.PL PARTITIVE=DEF.ART-F.PL strawberry-F.PL
    Carlo has eaten some strawberry.

    1c) {passive imperfective transitive clause}
    [Delle fragole] [sono/vengono mangiate] [da Carlo].
    [ A ] [ V ] [ P ]
    de=l-e fragol-e sono/veng-o-no mangi-a-t-e da Carl-o
    PARTITIVE=DEF.ART-F.PL strawberry-F.PL PASSIVE.3.PL.PRES.IND/come.PRES.IND-1.SG-3.PL eat-1st=conjugation-PAST.PART-F.PL DAT Charles-M.SG
    Some strawberries are eaten by me.

    1d) {passive perfective transitive clause}
    [Delle fragole] [sono state mangiate] [da Carl-o].
    [ A ] [ V ] [ P ]
    de=l-e fragol-e sono st-a-t-e mangi-a-t-e da Carl-o
    PARTITIVE=DEF.ART-F.PL strawberry-F.PL 3.PL.PRES.IND.PERF PASSIVE.PAST.PART-1st=conjugation-PAST.PART-F.PL eat-1st=conjugation-PAST.PART-F.SG DAT Charles-M.SG
    Some strawberries have been eaten by Carlo.

    1e) {active imperfective intransitive clause}
    [Carlo e Carla] mangiano.
    [ S ] V
    Carl-o e Carl-a mangi-a-no
    Charles-M.SG CONJ Charles-F.SG eat-3.SG-3.PL
    Carlo and Carla, eat.

    1f) {active perfective intransitive clause}
    [Carlo e Carla] [hanno mangiato].
    [ S ] [ V ]
    Carl-o e Carl-a h-a-n=no mangi-a-t-o
    Charles-M.SG CONJ Charles-F.SG PERF.SG.PRES.IND-3.SG-3.PL.PRES.IND=3.PL eat-1st=conjugation-PAST.PART-M.SG
    Carlo and Carla, (have) eaten.

    2a) {passive imperfective intransitive clause}
    [Carlo e Carla] muoiono.
    [ S ] V
    Carl-o e Carl-a muoi-o-no
    Charles-M.SG die.1.PRES.IND-1.SG-3.SG
    Carlo and Carla die.

    2b) {passive perfective intransitive clause}
    [Carlo e Carla] [sono morti].
    [ S ] [ V ]
    Carl-o e Carl-a somo mor-Ø-t-i
    Charles-M.SG CONJ Charles-F.SG 3.PL.PRES.IND.PERF die-2nd=conjugation=irregular-PAST.PART-M.PL
    Carlo and Carla are died.

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